Fr. Seraphim (Rose) as a Symbol of Our Times

A Greek icon of Fr. Seraphim. Photo: A Greek icon of Fr. Seraphim. Photo:     

The following article was written at Holy Trinity Monastery at Jordanville, the spiritual center of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia, in 2001.

In Colorado, in the 1990s, there lived a young cowboy named Ross. He was a real, modern cowboy. His family owned huge plots of land by our standards, where a herd of cows pastured. Nevertheless, the family was not very well off, and had to do many things with their own hands. Ross would spend the entire fall and spring in the saddle, as a cowboy should. The rest of the time he was an ordinary American youth: He had a Harley, he had long hair, and he listened to modern music. The area where Ross lived was traditionally Protestant, so naturally, his family was Protestant.

What happened then? Nothing unusual, and yet, something unusual: Ross decided to find the truth that would explain everything to him about the world, about life and death, and about himself. Ross quickly passed through all the traditional American confessions, not finding what he was looking for. Then he decided to delve into Church history. In doing so, Ross discovered a treasure trove of Patristic writings. But the fathers lived long ago, and Ross wanted to find the thread of their tradition in modern life. He began to read many modern authors until he came across, of course not “accidentally,” a book of some Hieromonk Seraphim with the beautiful last name of Rose. The young man did not know that this spiritual rose would fill his life with the fragrance of true Christianity.

Having read this book, Ross started looking for others, until he read everything that was available from Fr. Seraphim. From them he learned about Truth, Which had long awaited him, though he didn’t know the path to it. Ross learned that this Truth is Christ—not the saccharine and modernized Christ preached by Protestants, but the living Christ, living among His chosen people, called the Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church. He learned about the history of this Church and much else—for example, about Russian Orthodoxy, about Holy Rus’, about the New Martyrs of Russia. Then Ross found Orthodox Christians and received Holy Baptism with the name Ignatius. He told us all of this when he came to Jordanville on pilgrimage.

Of course, such cases, when young people who are looking for the truth find it with the help of the writings and life example of Hieromonk Seraphim (Rose), occur not only in America, but also in the Russian land, somewhere in Pskov or Siberia. But if for Americans Fr. Seraphim is their own, then how does he attract Russian hearts? And not just Russians—after all, he enjoys no less respect in all Eastern European countries.

The fact is that, by the will of God, Hieromonk Seraphim became a symbol of our times, a symbol of how you can turn from false spirituality and godlessness to the Truth. How many times I have heard from completely different people: “You know, my life is very similar to the life of Fr. Seraphim.” It’s true. His fate is the fate of the modern lost generation, to which, by the mercy of God, true Christianity is suddenly revealed.

The milestones of this fate are as follow:

First milestone: Disillusionment with the tradition you grew up in; the realization of its falsehood. In the West, it’s usually a false-Christian tradition (Fr. Seraphim was from a Protestant family); in Russia—atheism, and beginning with perestroika—the “religion” of comfort and good living.

Second milestone: After disillusionment comes a conversion to false spirituality, whether it’s Buddhism, as was the case with Fr. Seraphim, or various sects and cults, or occult practices.

Third milestone: Spiritual sobering up and a realization that there is no truth in the realm of “non-traditional spirituality;” a dead end; an awareness of your own infirmity, of the need to meet the Living God, and a longing for the help of the Divine Redeemer.

Fourth milestone: The revelation of the Divine-human Church with its healing Sacraments, with its daily miracle of God’s presence with the faithful. Here there can be no mistake, for not only does the soul exult, but every cell of the body rejoices, anticipating liberation. Do you remember what Fr. Seraphim experienced when he first found himself at the Russian Orthodox Cathedral in San Francisco, where the service was being held in a language unknown to him? He realized that “this door” was closed behind him forever.

But it’s not enough to find the true Church—you also have to remain in it. This is especially difficult for those who came to the faith as adults or who were raised in a heterodox tradition. Here begins the daily podvig of the Christian life. Fr. Seraphim showed us just such an example of how to patiently, deliberately, and wisely live an Orthodox life from day to day, until his very repose. He won the battle with evil spirits, a battle that became especially acute before his painful end. He did not succumb to any temptations, remaining a faithful child of the Orthodox Church to the end.

Example and testament

The simple grave of Fr. Seraphim. Photo: Wikipedia The simple grave of Fr. Seraphim. Photo: Wikipedia     

Those who knew Hieromonk Seraphim well say that he really was an example in everything: He always behaved simply and modestly, he did not throw himself into extremes, and when there were temptations, he sought an answer in the holy fathers and sought the will of God through the decisions and instructions of the hierarchy; he was tolerant of the weaknesses of others and intolerant to his own shortcomings. Fr. Seraphim did not suffer from “convertitis” and did not play the role of a spiritual elder or super-spiritual theologian. It was for this humble attitude towards himself that the Lord made him a source of living water for many suffering souls. The Lord put words of discernment and love in his mouth. The Holy Spirit enlightened his mind when he wrote his theological works and when he preached and instructed his spiritual children, whether by letter or orally.

But aren’t there many people, say, in the United States, who have the same fate as Fr. Seraphim? There are many of them. Aren’t there enough Church writers in our days? There are enough. So why do we honor Fr. Seraphim? Why do Orthodox hearts on every continent respond to his words? Is it not because the Lord exalted him and sanctified him with spiritual gifts while he was still alive? And we are drawn to Fr. Seraphim, sensing this holiness with our hearts.

In antiquity, the teachings of Christ were often simply called “the Way.” And I think this is no accident, because it is not salvific for us to simply learn Christian teaching, but we ourselves must walk the difficult path of Christ to the end. Many people are puzzled in our days about how to walk this path. Let us learn this art from Hieromonk Seraphim (Rose).

Fr. Seraphim taught that in any difficulties or doubts, when a new, hitherto unknown question arises, we must, first of all, put aside bias, prejudice, and suspicion, and carefully examine what the holy fathers said about it; secondly, turn to a confessor; and thirdly, ask the Lord for understanding, and the answer will surely come. We have to accept this answer, even if it contradicts the opinion of society or our own previous beliefs. Fr. Seraphim himself always behaved this way.

Hieromonk Seraphim considered the judicious study of the Patristic texts to be a very important part of the Christian life. One hieroschemamonk in Russia once said that Fr. Seraphim, although an American, acquired the spirit of the holy fathers better than many who had grown up in an Orthodox environment. And this is no surprise. As we know, the most important quality inherent in all the holy fathers is sobriety. Hieromonk Seraphim assimilated this quality from the Patristic heritage.

Sobriety taught Fr. Seraphim not to be proud of the veneration that surrounded him during his lifetime. Sobriety kept him from extremes throughout his monastic path. Sobriety guided him in choosing the Church position, pointing out the middle, royal path between the extremes of Church renovationism and fanatic self-sufficiency. Sobriety taught him to treat Orthodox modernists and non-Orthodox Christians not as enemies, but as wayward brothers who have yet to understand the full perniciousness of their views.

Hieromonk Seraphim taught that if we throw up our hands before the forces of darkness, if we give up hope, then we cease to be Christians. He believed that in any case, under any persecution, the Orthodox must not be embittered, because Christian love believes everything, hopes in everything, and never fails.

Fr. Seraphim’s preaching was not gloomy. Even about the end of the world, he spoke calmly and judiciously, without any “eschatological ecstasy.” He was penetrated with the evangelical spirit—the apostolic, first-Christian, ascetic spirit. In his person, the world was shown an example of a Christian of the first times, who turned the eyes of his heart to the spiritual Heaven in anticipation of the coming Lord.

At the same time, Fr. Seraphim was a true “Egyptian” monk of our times. His soul was in love with the ideal of monastic otherness—life not by the laws of the sinful world, but by the commandments of the Heavenly world. But he didn’t create a cult out of monastic world-denial, as some modern Church writers do, playing at asceticism. Fr. Seraphim did not play—he lived by asceticism, and therefore he didn’t put it on display, didn’t boast of it, but chastely hid it from casual eyes. Like every other Orthodox righteous one, he was a child of the Gospel in his soul, deeply feeling and loving the beauty and harmony of God’s creation.

There is a golden thread running through Fr. Seraphim’s articles and letters of the idea that our goal today is the unity of the Orthodox and that our strength is an honest but gentle word. If we are consistent and firm in achieving this goal, then by the mercy of God we will see the triumph of Orthodoxy. But conversely, we will never see this universal triumph if we cross out everyone who is not with us now for various reasons, if we isolate ourselves and give up the work of preaching Christianity to which we are called.

The path to the Russian heart

Fresco of St. John, Br. Jose, and Fr. Seraphim at a church in northern Moscow Fresco of St. John, Br. Jose, and Fr. Seraphim at a church in northern Moscow   

Some people ask: “Is it possible for the Russian people to understand and accept the mission of the Russian Church Abroad?”[1] Such people don’t know that the people have already accepted it, which happened when they received into their hearts such luminaries of the Russian Church Abroad, such as St. John (Maximovitch), Hieromonk Seraphim (Rose), and the tortured guardian of the myrrh-streaming Iveron Icon, Br. Jose Muñoz. There is no doubt that the universal veneration in Russia of St. John, Hieromonk Seraphim, and Br. Jose is a guarantee that the Russian people are spiritually alive and have the strength to remove unclean growths from their bodies.

We must understand that the path of St. John, Fr. Seraphim, and Br. Jose is the sole path to the heart of the Russian people. It’s impossible to achieve positive results by proud denunciation and self-assured super-correctness. The only true way is to enter into your heart and become a light for the world through unceasing repentance and prayer, not trusting in yourself at all, but placing all your hope in the Lord. The saints walked this path, and therefore their words were spoken “with authority.” One look, one phrase would ignite and renew dozens of people, for they were no longer their words and actions, but the words and action of Christ Himself, addressing people through them.

May the bright image of Hieromonk Seraphim (Rose) be like a candle in the dark, standing before all those who walk this path to the Russian people with their spiritual preaching.


Here are a few examples testifying to the fact of Fr. Seraphim being chosen by God, to his care for us, and to his veneration by the faithful.

Hieroschemamonk Raphael (Berestov) says that during the soviet times, the monks of the Holy Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra highly valued the words of Fr. Seraphim. They translated some of his works into Russian and distributed them among the faithful.

Fr. Seraphim in repose Fr. Seraphim in repose   

When a photo of Fr. Seraphim lying in his coffin was sent to the Lavra, Hieroschemamonk Raphael was struck by how bright, clear, and alive Fr. Seraphim’s face[2] was. Fr. Raphael recalls that he literally ran around the Lavra showing everyone this photo, saying that in seeing such a face, a non-believer could become a believer…

Thus, Russian monks, wholly devoted to unbroken Orthodoxy, have long loved and venerated Fr. Seraphim.

Now, back to America. One Orthodox family suffered a tragedy in 1997, when the father, Subdeacon Vasily Anderson, died. During his lifetime, Subdeacon Vasily was a kind Christian and was involved in missionary publishing. He and his wife adopted two orphans from Russia. Vasily was a Godchild of Fr. Seraphim. After Vasily’s sudden death, his sister Cecilia, also a Godchild of Fr. Seraphim, saw Fr. Seraphim in a dream. He was preoccupied with something, doing something. Cecilia asked him what he was so busy with. Fr. Seraphim answered that he had many cares, as he was preparing a place to greet the newly-reposed servant of God Vasily.

If we try to spiritually draw near to Fr. Seraphim (Rose) in this life, then by the grace of God, we will also be with him in the future life.

Monk Vsevolod (Filippev)
Translated by Jesse Dominick



[1] Note that this article was written in 2001, six years before the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia reunited with the Moscow Patriarchate.—Trans.

[2] The word used here for face is “лик (lik),” which is generally used to refer to the faces of the saints, the faces on icons.—Trans.

See also
“I Learned From Him How to Live and How to Die”. How Fr. Seraphim (Rose) Influenced the Life of One Future Priest “I Learned From Him How to Live and How to Die”. How Fr. Seraphim (Rose) Influenced the Life of One Future Priest
Fr. Martin Person
“I Learned From Him How to Live and How to Die”. How Fr. Seraphim (Rose) Influenced the Life of One Future Priest “I Learned From Him How to Live and How to Die”
How Fr. Seraphim (Rose) Influenced the Life of One Future Priest
Jesse Dominick, Fr. Martin Person, Martha Nichols
“The first time I met Fr. Seraphim, I saw how an Orthodox man should live. The second time I saw him, I saw how an Orthodox man should die.”
The American Acquisition of the Patristic Mind The American Acquisition of the Patristic Mind
Vincent Rossi
The American Acquisition of the Patristic Mind The American Acquisition of the Patristic Mind
The Significance of Fr. Seraphim Rose for the Christian of Today
Vincent Rossi
Fr. Seraphim’s soul was transformed by Tradition (the life of the Holy Spirit in the Church) into a flaming sword, capable of rending the veil of delusions of the modern world and revealing the Holy Place: the one, holy, catholic, and apostolic and Orthodox Church.
Nurtured by the Holy Fathers: Lessons from the life and works of Fr. Seraphim Rose Nurtured by the Holy Fathers: Lessons from the life and works of Fr. Seraphim Rose
Bp. Daniil (Nikolov), Hieromonk Damascene (Christensen)
Nurtured by the Holy Fathers: Lessons from the life and works of Fr. Seraphim Rose Nurtured by the Holy Fathers: Lessons from the life and works of Fr. Seraphim Rose
Bp. Daniil (Nikolov), Hieromonk Damascene (Christensen)
Fr. Seraphim’s writings came out of his life. His authentic presentation of Patristic teaching to modern man was borne out of his own ascetic struggle against the passions. He was uncompromising with himself in his own spiritual life and he was uncompromising at the same time in his adherence to the Orthodox Patristic teaching, never watering it down to make it palatable to the modern mentality. Fr. Seraphim never published anything about his own personal spiritual struggle, but his printed words covering a multitude of topics, which touch the lives of people every day, breathe that struggle. Souls searching for the unadulterated truth of Christ in our Church sense in Fr. Seraphim one who did fight the good fight and who finished victorious by Christ’s grace.
Vignettes of a Holy Life: Reminiscences of Fr. Seraphim Rose Vignettes of a Holy Life: Reminiscences of Fr. Seraphim Rose Vignettes of a Holy Life: Reminiscences of Fr. Seraphim Rose Vignettes of a Holy Life: Reminiscences of Fr. Seraphim Rose
Presented at the retreat in honor of the thirtieth anniversary of his repose, 2012
Many who had personally known Fr. Seraphim returned to the monastery to offer both prayers, and personal reminiscences about him. These words of those who knew him are valuable in that they show us simply Fr. Seraphim the man and monk, always concerned first of all for cultivating the Truth, and a loving Orthodox heart both in himself and in all those he came into contact with. His more theological works can and should be read in the context of the picture we are presented here, of a man of great spiritual depth and calmness, striving to give his all to our Lord Jesus Christ.
“Only the One Who is a Child Can be Called a Father.” St. Prohor Pechinskii and Fr. Seraphim Rose “Only the One Who is a Child Can be Called a Father.” St. Prohor Pechinskii and Fr. Seraphim Rose
Abbot Ilarion (Lupulovic)
“Only the One Who is a Child Can be Called a Father.” St. Prohor Pechinskii and Fr. Seraphim Rose “Only the One Who is a Child Can be Called a Father.” St. Prohor Pechinskii and Fr. Seraphim Rose
Abbot Ilarion (Lupulovic)
"Only the one who is a child can be called a father. And he is a father not because of himself but because he reflects the mystery of our Heavenly Father Who loves us through His Son and in His Son."
"Fr. Seraphim Was a Whole Man, and Therefore He Was a Healed Man"
A Conversation with Fr. Ambrose Young and Mother Theadelphi On Fr. Seraphim Rose
"Fr. Seraphim Was a Whole Man, and Therefore He Was a Healed Man"
A Conversation with Fr. Ambrose Young and Mother Theadelphi On Fr. Seraphim Rose
Jesse Dominick, Fr. Ambrose Young, Mother Theadelphi
"I think he was probably the closest we will ever get to seeing or knowing someone like St. John or St. John of Kronstadt who was also a whole person. I think there are just so few of us in the Church, much less outside of the Church. We’re just very broken and wounded in this culture and in this society. And so it was wonderful to see someone who was healed because he just accepted everything, believed it and did it."
Photios9/7/2020 6:58 pm
The term "blessed" is placed on icons of non glorified venerated individuals of the Orthodox Church. There is no "decision" made regarding such a thing. We are not papists. It is done out of piety and reverence and is not a "canonical" action. If an individual is officially glorified by the Church (not "canonized" which is not an Orthodox term),which is formally expressing the already held veneration of the individual by the Orthodox Church as a general whole, then the "blessed" would be replaced with "Saint". In Greek that could be either "Ayios" or "Osios". The latter being if the Saint is ranked among the Ascetic Fathers or Mothers of the Church.
Jonathan Hayward9/4/2020 9:26 pm
I wanted to add a P.S. to what I posted. I wonder if I have verged into territory of ""Everything is permitted"--maybe, but not everything is beneficial." What I posted was sincere and posted out of a desire to edify--but whether it actually edifies, I don't know. In any case, I would ask prayers and forgiveness for anything I have posted that was out of line.
Jonathan Hayward9/3/2020 5:20 pm
P.S. You might ignore my book as such, and read the reviews, again at They're caustic. One well-received review publicly casts doubt on how sober I was when writing. I have not had such interactions with followers of any of "Paisios, Porphyrios, Iakovos of Evia", and every understanding I have is that those followers of Fr. Seraphim that I met represent a singularity among self-identified Orthodox. ("Self-identified," I say, because I have gotten a sense that in "Blessed Seraphim Rose" there is no canonical nor non-canonical, and I have been accosted by non-canonical followers of "Blessed Seraphim Rose" but I have never heard a canonical follower distance himself from a non-canonical follower on grounds of canonicity. They're a team, where ROCOR and Remnant ROCOR work without any distance.)
Jonathan Hayward9/3/2020 5:04 pm
"Paisios, Porphyrios, Iakovos of Evia", and others never had followers pull out a battle axe against me or left me unsuccessfully trying to shut down harassment. Fr. Seraphim's following has given me harassment like no other. BTW, the link I gave in my first post had problems. Mea culpa. If you want to read my attempts to document a behavior problem, "The Seraphinians" is at I do not see why Fr. Seraphim's Western convert following is irrelevant to understanding Fr. Seraphim in three dimensions, and I do not see why Fr. Seraphim's more enlightened following does not acknowledge and try to redress that there are some kooks who go under the banner of Fr. Seraphim and the better folk do not address any heterodoxy as a heterodoxy that has betrayed Fr. Seraphim's legacy. Devout followers should be the first to try to redress a problem if there is one, and the first to vindicate Fr. Seraphim from axe-wielding Orthodox fundamentalists. Jonathan Hayward, unworthy layman in ROCOR who has visited Holy Cross Hermitage and seen the esteem for Fr. Seraphiim.
Micah Sabol9/3/2020 1:25 pm
I've lived in Russia for 17 years now and Fr. Seraphim Rose was crucial for me. His mentor, St. John Maximovitch touched so many people, even from one person to another. I remember Mr. Ustinov in Miami, the son of aristocrats, who talked about helping Fr. John in Paris. These men were just a handful, but their impact is enormous.
Santosh John Samuel9/3/2020 10:45 am
"But if for Americans Fr. Seraphim is their own, then how does he attract Russian hearts? And not just Russians—after all, he enjoys no less respect in all Eastern European countries." Fr. Seraphim enjoys respect in other lands too, for example, in India. He's among those holy men for whom one develops an affection almost immediately upon hearing of their story; it's like his story resembles part of our lives and the hope that redemption is possible for each of us. His podvig was truly amazing (and a gift from God), but who among us doesn't inwardly wish for a truly transformed life? Pray for us St. Seraphim to lead holy lives, fulfilling each of our responsibilities and ending our lives well. Also pray for us (me and my family) to visit and offer prayers at your grave.
Daniel Smith9/3/2020 6:10 am
Did it bother you when they did it to Paisios, Porphyrios, Iakovos of Evia etc? Or are you just OCA? ;-)
Jonathan Hayward9/3/2020 1:26 am
P.S. This one piece was written after my response, and I believe it forms a matched complement to the matched pattern of Fr. Seraphim where many have started Protestant, gotten into the occult, and ended up in canonical Orthodoxy, and preferably not nominal members. I quote "The Protestant Phenotype" from, on the heels of the pattern occurring again in my experience: I’ve realized one thing about my Protestant roots that I had not recognized before. I grew up a Protestant, and there are many good things to be said for Protestant Christianity and about Evangelicalism. Among these are a belief that faith should be strong, and an emphasis on reading the Bible. Since my reception into Orthodoxy, there have been something like seven major battles of will I have fought to establish a simple boundary. (???? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????? “????????????????????????????????” ???????? ???????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ???????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????; ???? ???????????????? “????????????????????????????????” ???????? ???????????? ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????? ???? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ????????????????.) Every one of those, and priests included, has been with a former Evangelical. No Orthodox Christian who grew up Orthodox, and for that matter no Catholic received into the Orthodox Church, has decided to persistently overrule one of my boundaries. I am intentionally refraining from providing details that would be way too much information, but we are talking CEASE AND DESIST letters to end overbearing attempts at “help.” I’ve looked mostly at genotypes, of Protestants (????????????, ℭ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????????????????????, ???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????? ???????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????, ???????? ???????? ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????), Catholics (????????????, ℭ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????????????????????, ???????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????????? ????????????????????????????????????????, ???????????? ???????????????????????????????? ???????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????, ???????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? ???????????????????????????????? ???????? ????????????????????????????????: ???????????????? ???????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????), and Orthodox. And I certainly wouldn’t disavow that now; I’ve written some pretty harsh things. However, including in convert parishes, there is a certain class of conflicts I’ve never had from someone born in the Orthodox Church, or received into Orthodoxy from Catholicism. When I was at UIUC, Newman’s priests showed patience with me being an idiot and a jerk, but neither devout Roman clergy nor laity assumed command and tried to straighten me out. However, here I am interested in phenotypes now. Not so much “What are the internals?” but “What is the external manifesting behavior?” There is (I believe) a profound clue into the heart of Protestantism in that former Protestants in Orthodoxy have tried to overrule my boundaries, and only former Protestants in well over a decade of contact with Orthodox of numerous different backgrounds (my godfather, who was rightly respected, was a former atheist). I am intentionally refraining from analysis, however, I believe that this is of interest in situating an understanding of Protestantism, particularly as conservative Protestants make a major practical emphasis on morals. (Perhaps I should found an organization called “Ex-Protestants for Christianity?”)
Nicole9/3/2020 12:23 am
What a beautiful article about a priest many consider a Saint. (My understanding is that the laity sometimes speak locally and individually as part of the process of official sanctification). I can say that his Orthodox Survival Course from the 1970’s and his masterful “Genesis, Creation, and Early Man” as well as his life path mean a great deal to me in understanding my past and the present world. Father Peter Heers’ Orthodox Survival Course based on Fr Seraphim’s is another marvelous aid in the Orthodox life. Thank you for re-posting this article!
Jonathan Hayward9/2/2020 6:24 pm
I've had some rough experiences with people who go by the banner of "Blessed Seraphim Rose." I see that in one of the pictures above this comment have a sketch of "Blessed Fr. Seraphim of Plantina." I've heard one Russian priest say, ""Blessed?" When did that happen?" Unless one is stretching the conventional designation of the newly reposed as "blessed", without the uppercase "B", the term "Blessed" has not been officially designated for Fr. Seraphim, and I've seen maybe two dozen saints identified as "Blessed," including mostly holy fools ("Blessed Xenia", etc.). There are some people who are very involved with "Blessed Seraphim Rose" or some update of that term who do not seem to have imbibed the middle path between extremes that Fr. Seraphim here is extolled for. -Jonathan Hayward, author, "The Seraphinians,"
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